Two different scenarios (2)

  1. ‘too wide’ is most common: values (of a variable) have ended up in column names
    • tidy by making the data longer: pivot these values into their own column (variable)
  2. ‘too long’ is less common: names of several variables exist as cells in one column, their values in another
    • tidy by making the data wider: pivot the column with variable names into several columns (variables)